Standards define what students should be able to do at each grade level and can be used as a reference point for teachers planning curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Echoes and Reflections is designed to help secondary educators teach about the Holocaust while addressing rigorous national, state, and local standards in meaningful ways.

National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies

Each of the Echoes and Reflections lessons includes reference to the National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies. The standards provide a framework for what should occur in a social studies program, and are focused on ten themes. The themes—often addressed in interrelated ways―are identified at the beginning of each lesson and highlighted below.

NCSSS Ten Themes

  • Œ Culture
  •  Time, Continuity, and Change
  • Ž People, Places, and Environments
  •  Individual Development and Identity
  •  Individuals, Groups, and Institutions
  • ‘ Power, Authority, and Governance
  • ’ Production, Distribution, and Consumption
  • “ Science, Technology, and Society
  • ” Global Connections
  • • Civic Ideals and Practices