GLOSSARY
EDUCATOR RESOURCE: TIMELINE
TIMELINE


1933
January 30 -- February 1
Adolf Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany.

February 27 -- March 5
Reichstag (German Parliament) arson leads to state of emergency. Hitler presents an emergency order that voids important basic civil rights.

March 5
Reichstag elections: The Nazis gain 44 percent of the vote.

March 22
The Nazis establish the Dachau (Germany) concentration camp to imprison (without trial) people they consider their enemies.

March 24
The Nazis sponsor the Enabling Act, a bill that would give Hitler’s government dictatorial powers for four years. To make sure the law passes, the Nazis imprison Communists and potential opposition.

April 1
The Nazis declare a boycott of all Jewish businesses in Germany.

April 7
The Nazi government declares that Jews are debarred from working in the civil service and strips them of their equal rights.

April 21
Jewish dietary laws prohibited; no kosher butchering is allowed.

April 25
The school quota system limits the number of Jewish high school and university students in Germany.

May 10
The Nazis burn thousands of anti-Nazi Jewish-authored and “degenerate” books.

July 14
Forced sterilization of German citizens with congenital disabilities begins.

July 14
Germany is proclaimed a one-party state.

October 14 -- October 19
Germany quits the League of Nations and disarmament talks.

November 2
The Nazi Party gets 92 percent of the vote in one-party elections.

1934
January 26
The German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact is signed.

June 30
“Night of the Long Knives”: Hitler orders the elimination of the main figures in the SA to prevent rivalry between the SA and the SS and the German army.

August 2
German president Hindenburg dies: Hitler merges the offices of chancellor and president and becomes the Reichsfuehrer, thereby making him the sole and unrivaled leader of Germany.

1935
January 13
Germany reclaims the Saar region (an area of Germany that was administered by France under League of Nations supervision following World War I) in accordance with the Treaty of Versailles.

March 16
Military conscription in Germany begins, violating the Treaty of Versailles.

May 31
The German army becomes “all-Aryan,” meaning Jews are not allowed to serve.

September 15
The Nuremberg Laws are enacted, defining who is a Jew according to racial theory, banning marriage between Jews and non-Jews, and stripping Jews of German citizenship.

1936
March 7
The German army enters the Rhineland (region along the Rhine River in western Germany), violating the Treaty of Versailles.

July 16
The Spanish Civil War begins.

August 1
The Olympic Games begin in Berlin (Germany).

September 9
The Four-Year Plan (the economic plan to prepare Germany for war) is unveiled.

October 25
The Rome-Berlin Axis Agreement is signed between Italy and Germany based on political interests.

November 25
Germany and Japan sign a military pact.

1937
March 21
Pope Pius XI issues a statement against racism.

July 19
Buchenwald (Germany) concentration camp is established.

November 5
The German army is ordered to prepare for war.

1938
March 13
Anschluss: Germany annexes Austria.

March 23
Recognition of Jewish organizations in Germany is revoked.

June 14
Jewish businesses have to register as such.

June 15
“Operation June”: Mass arrests of Jews in the Reich and banishment to concentration camps begin.

July 6
Anti-Jewish economic policies restrict Jews’ access to many fields of activity.

July 6 -- July 15
Evian Conference: Representatives of Great Britain, United States, France, and other countries meet in Evian, France, to discuss the problem of Jewish refugees trying to emigrate from the Reich.

August 17
Compulsory middle names (Sarah for women and Israel for men) for Jews in Germany are required in order to identify them as Jews.

September 29
The Munich Agreement: England and France accept German annexation of parts of Czechoslovakia.

October 5
Passports of German Jews are marked with the letter “J.”

October 28
17,000 Polish-born Jews are expelled from Germany to Poland; most are interned in Zbaszyn (Poland).

November 7 -- November 10
The Kristallnacht Pogrom: Almost one hundred Jews are murdered and Jewish synagogues and Jewish businesses are burned and vandalized across Germany and Austria.

November 10
Italy adopts antisemitic racial laws.

November 12
All Jewish businesses are forcibly handed over to Germans; Jews are forbidden from practicing medicine or law or attending universities; a fine of one billion Reichsmarks is imposed on Jews.

November 15
Jewish children are banned from German schools.

1939
March 15
Germans occupy Bohemia and Moravia, thus liquidating the Czechoslovak Republic.

March 28
The civil war in Spain ends.

June 6
The MS St. Louis, a ship with 937 Jewish refugees, is turned away by Cuba, the United States, and other countries, and returns to Europe.

August 23
Germany and the Soviet Union sign the Non-Aggression Pact; the pact includes a secret section that determines the partition of Poland.

September 1
Germany invades Poland, beginning World War II.

September 3
Great Britain, France, India, Australia, and New Zealand declare war on Germany.

September 17
The Soviets invade Poland.

September 21
Reinhard Heydrich (head of security police) orders the establishment of Jewish councils (Judenrate) and the concentration of Jews in the larger cities of Poland.

September 28
Poland is partitioned between Germany and the Soviet Union.

October 4
The Warsaw (Poland) Judenrat is established.

October 7
Jewish “resettlement” in the Lublin district of Poland begins; plans are made to establish a Jewish “reservation.”

October 8
The first ghetto is established in Piotrkow Trybunalski, Poland.

October 26
Civil administration (Generalgouvernement) is established in Poland; Polish elite are persecuted and murdered; slave labor is imposed on Jews between the ages of 14–60.

November 23
Jews in Poland are required to wear the Jewish Badge (Star of David).

November 30
The Soviets invade Finland.

December 2
The Nazis initiate use of gas vans to eliminate patients with mental disabilities.

1940
January 24
Jewish property in Generalgouvernement is registered.

March
The Katyn Massacre: The Soviets execute thousands of Polish officers in the Soviet-occupied part of Poland.

April 9
Germany invades Denmark and Norway.

April 30
The Lodz (Poland) ghetto is sealed.

May 10
Germany invades Belgium and the Netherlands; Neville Chamberlain resigns; Winston Churchill becomes the prime minister of England.

May 26
The Allies evacuate forces to England at Dunkirk.

June 14
Germany occupies Paris; the first deportation of Polish political prisoners to Auschwitz (Poland) concentration camp begins.

June 18
Hitler presents Mussolini with the Madagascar Plan, a plan to deport all Jews to the island near the shores of Eastern Africa.

July 10
The Vichy France government is formed.

August 8
The Battle of Britain begins.

August 17
Germany declares the “total blockade of Britain.”

September 7
The German “Blitz” on England reaches a climax with massive air raids on British cities.

October 3
The French government sets fierce anti-Jewish legislation.

October 22
Jewish businesses in occupied Netherlands are registered.

October 28
Jewish property in Belgium is registered.

November 15
The Warsaw ghetto is sealed.

1941
March 20
The Krakow (Poland) ghetto is sealed.

April 6
Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.

April 9
Germany occupies Salonika, the largest Jewish community in Greece.

April 24
The Lublin (Poland) ghetto is sealed.

June 6
“Commissar Order”: Prior to the German invasion of the Soviet Union, the Wehrmacht high command authorizes its soldiers to murder any “suspect” of opposition, mainly Jews and Communists, thereby making the German army involved in war crimes in the occupied territories.

June 22
“Operation Barbarossa”: The German invasion of the Soviet Union marks the beginning of the “Final Solution.”

June 23
The Einsatzgruppen begin mass killings in the Soviet Union.

June 28
The Romanian “Iron Guard” kill 1,500 Jews in Iasi, Romania.

June 30
Germany occupies Lvov, Poland; 4,000 Jews are killed by July 3.

July 1
Einsatzgruppe D begins operating in Bessarabia (Romania); 160,000 Jews are shot by August 31.

July 24
The Kishinev (Romania) ghetto is established; 10,000 Jews are murdered.

July 31
Hermann Goering orders Heydrich to plan the “Final Solution.”

July
The murder of the Jews of Vilna (Lithuania) begins at Ponary, south of Vilna.

August 1
50,000 Jews are confined in the Bialystok (Poland) ghetto.

August 5
Murders in Pinsk (Belorussia); 10,000 are Jews killed in three days.

September 1
Jews in Slovakia and the protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia are ordered to wear the Jewish Badge.

September 3
The first experimental gassings are conducted at Auschwitz.

September 8
The siege of Leningrad (Russia) begins.

September 15
150,000 Jews are deported to Transnistria between Romania and the Soviet Union; 90,000 die.

September 19
German Jews are ordered to wear the Jewish Badge.

September 29 -- September 30
33,771 Jews are murdered at Babi Yar near Kiev (Ukraine).

October 8
The Vitebsk (Belorussia) ghetto is liquidated; Germans murder more than 16,000 Jews.

October 15
Deportation of German and Austrian Jews to ghettos in the East begins.

October 24
20,000 Jews are transported to Dalnik (Ukraine); Germans and Romanians murder all of them.

October 28
Germans murder thousands of Kovno (Lithuania) Jews.

October
The first transport (of prisoners of war) reaches Majdanek (Poland) extermination camp.

November 24
A ghetto-camp is established in Theresienstadt, near Prague (Czechoslovakia).

November 30
30,000 Riga (Latvia) Jews are arrested and subsequently shot at Rumbuli.

December 6
The Soviets launch a counteroffensive on Moscow.

December 7
The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; the United States enters World War II; four days later, Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.

December 7
The German army issues “Night and Fog”: an order prescribing repressive measures against resistance movements in the German-occupied countries of Western Europe.

December 8
Gas vans are introduced at Chelmno (Poland) extermination camp.

December 21
Romanians murder more than 40,000 Jews at the Bogdanovka (Romania) camp.

December 22
33,500 of 57,000 Jews in Vilna have been murdered.

December 31
The Jewish underground in Vilna issues a partisan manifesto calling Jews to fight back against the Germans.

1942
January 14
The concentration and expulsion of Dutch Jewry begins.

January 16
Germans begin deportation of more than 10,000 Jews from Lodz to Chelmno.

January 20
The Wannsee Conference takes place.

January 21
The Jewish underground is established in Vilna.

February 24
The Germans deport more than 30,000 Jews from Lodz to their deaths in Chelmno.

March 26
58,000 Slovakian Jews are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau (Poland).

March 28
The first transport of approximately 1,000 French Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau begins.

April 8
The Einsatzgruppen report that there are no Jews left in the Crimea.

May
The first mass killing in Sobibor (Poland) extermination camp occurs.

May 3
Jews in Holland are ordered to wear the Jewish Badge.

May 27
The Czech underground assassinates Reinhard Heydrich; in retaliation, the Germans obliterate the Czech village of Lidice.

June 1
Jews in Belgium and France are ordered to wear the Jewish Badge.

June 2
The BBC announces 700,000 Jews have been killed in Poland.

June 22 -- July
The first transports of Jews from Drancy internment camp in France to Auschwitz-Birkenau begin; Germans begin deporting Belgian and Dutch Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau.

July 19
Himmler orders elimination of all Jews in Generalgouvernement by the end of 1942.

July 22
The mass deportation from the Warsaw ghetto to Treblinka (Poland) extermination camp begins.

July 28
The Jewish Fighting Organization (Z.O.B.) is founded in Warsaw.

August 8 -- August 13
The US delays information on a plan to annihilate Jews to verify sources. Germans and Croatians begin deporting Croatian Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau.

August 10
Deportations from Lvov to Belzec (Poland) extermination camp begin; 50,000 Jews are gassed.

September 12
The Battle of Stalingrad (Russia) begins.

October 23
The British begin a counteroffensive at El Alamein, Egypt.

October 28
The first deportations from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz-Birkenau begin.

November 8
The Allies invade North Africa.

November 19
The Soviets counterattack near Stalingrad (Russia).

November 25 -- November 26
A massive round-up of Norwegian Jewry by Germans and Norwegian collaborators begins.

December
Deportations to Belzec stop.

December 17
The Allies condemn German mass murder.

1943
January 18
Jews launch an armed resistance to deportations from the Warsaw ghetto.

February 2
The Germans surrender at Stalingrad.

February 5
The deportation of 10,000 Jews from Bialystok to Treblinka begins.

February 25
The first transports from Salonika to Auschwitz-Birkenau begin.

February 26
The first transport of Sinti-Roma reaches Auschwitz-Birkenau.

March 4
Jews of Thrace (Greece) are deported to Treblinka.

March 20
The first deportations from Salonika arrive at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

April 19
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins.

April 19
Bermuda Conference: A conference convened by the United States and Great Britain ostensibly to find solutions for wartime refugees.

May 8
The leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising die.

June 1
The Lvov ghetto is liquidated.

June 21
Himmler orders liquidation of all ghettos in occupied Soviet territories.

June 28
Four crematoria are completed at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

July 10
The Allies invade Sicily (Italy).

July 25
Mussolini is deposed.

August 2
The uprising at Treblinka begins.

August 8
The first of five organized groups leave the Vilna ghetto to join the partisans.

August 15
The Bialystok ghetto is liquidated.

September 1
The Vilna underground uprising fails.

September 3
Belgian Jews are arrested for deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau.

September 23
The Vilna ghetto is liquidated.

October 1 -- October 2
Danish Jews are rescued.

October 14
The uprising at Sobibor begins.

October 18
Jews of Rome are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau.

October 21
The Minsk (Belorussia) ghetto is liquidated.

October 25
Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine) is liberated; 15 of 80,000 Jews remain.

November 3
Germans launch “Operation Harvest Festival” (Erntefest), concentrated large scale mass executions to liquidate all remaining Jews in the Lublin district and Lublin ghetto.

November 17
Jewish partisans liberate Jews in Borshchev (Ukraine).

1944
January 26
The War Refugee Board is established.

January 27
The Siege of Leningrad ends.

March 18
Hitler orders German troops into Hungary.

March 24
President Roosevelt warns Hungary to refrain from anti-Jewish measures.

April 7
Two Jewish prisoners deliver “Auschwitz Protocols.”

April 16
The Hungarian government registers Jews and confiscates their property.

May 11
Allied forces mount a major offensive in central Italy.

May 15
Mass deportations of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau begin.

June 4
Americans occupy Rome.

June 6
D-Day (Invasion of Normandy)

June 13
Germany launches the first V-1 rockets at England.

July 3
Minsk is liberated; few of 80,000 Jews survive.

July 7
The Hungarian government halts deportations.

July 8
The Kovno ghetto is liquidated.

July 13
Jewish partisans help liberate Vilna; 2,500 of 57,000 Jews survive.

July 20
An attempt to assassinate Hitler fails.

July 22
Lvov is liberated; 110,000 Jews are dead.

July 23
The Red Cross visits Theresienstadt.

July 25
The Soviet Army liberates Majdanek.

August 7
The liquidation of the Lodz ghetto begins; 74,000 Jews are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau.

August 28
The Slovak National Uprising begins.

September 4
Antwerp (Belgium) is liberated; fewer than 5,000 Jews survive.

September 28
Churchill announces formation of Jewish Brigade.

October 3
The Polish uprising in Warsaw is crushed.

October 7
The Sonderkommando uprising at Auschwitz-Birkenau begins.

November
Germans stop gassings at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

November 8
Deportations from Budapest (Hungary) resume.

December 16
The Battle of the Bulge

1945
January 16
The Soviets liberate half of Budapest.

January 17
The Soviets liberate Warsaw; few Jews remain.

January 18
Auschwitz-Birkenau is abandoned; the death march of prisoners begins.

January 19
The Soviets liberate the Lodz ghetto.

January 27
The Soviets liberate Auschwitz-Birkenau.

February 1
40,000 prisoners are marched out of Gross-Rosen (Poland) concentration camp.

February 13 -- February 14
Royal Air Force (RAF) and United States Air Force (USAF) air raids devastate Dresden (Germany).

April 11
Americans liberate Buchenwald.

April 12
President Roosevelt dies; he is succeeded by Harry Truman.

April 15
British forces liberate Bergen-Belsen (Germany) concentration camp.

April 25
American and Soviet troops meet at the River Elbe near Torgau, Germany.

April 28
Mussolini is shot.

April 30
Hitler and his companion, Eva Braun, commit suicide.

May 2
The Soviets occupy Berlin.

May 5
Mauthausen (Austria) concentration camp is liberated by the US Army.

May 7
Germany surrenders to the Allies.

May 8
V-E (Victory in Europe) Day

July 16
The Potsdam Conference

August 6 -- August 9
The United States drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan).

November 20
The Nuremberg Trials begin.