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LESSON PLAN
EDUCATOR RESOURCE: LESSON PLANS
Our Lesson Plans provide a unique experience for educators to teach about the Holocaust effectively and interactively. Lessons are organized by topics that represent major themes associated with the Holocaust in an order that is roughly chronological; the modular design of the Lessons allows for adaption and customization to specific grade levels and subject areas. The integration of rich content in each Lesson helps students construct an authentic and comprehensive portrait of the past as they frame their own thoughts about what they are learning, resulting in a deeper level of interest and inquiry. Each lesson includes:
  • Step-by-step procedures
  • Estimated completion time
  • Resources labeled by icons        direct teachers to the piece of content named in the procedures
  • Print-ready pages as indicated by  are available as PDFs for download
For more information, questions or concerns please contact us.
PEDAGOGY PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE HOLOCAUST INSTRUCTION

PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE HOLOCAUST INSTRUCTION

PERPETRATORS, COLLABORATORS, AND BYSTANDERS
HOW CAN THEY [HOLOCAUST DENIERS] STILL CONTINUE AND POISON SO MANY MINDS WITH THEIR VICIOUS PROPAGANDA?

- BRIGITTE ALTMAN, JEWISH SURVIVOR

PREPARING TO TEACH THIS UNIT  

Below is information to keep in mind when teaching the content in this unit. This material is intended to help teachers consider the complexities of teaching about perpetrators, collaborators, and bystanders and to deliver accurate and sensitive instruction.

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  • Examining the topic of responsibility and guilt for the Holocaust is an important, yet difficult, task. Allowing opportunities to examine the roles of both individuals and nations regarding the issue of trying to prevent what happened to Jews and other groups asks students to examine the complex boundaries of responsibility and the cost to a society that does not act. Adolescents are often interested and eager to discuss issues of fairness and consequences as they struggle to understand the world outside of themselves. The study of the Holocaust raises many topics that may lead students to question, analyze, and redefine their own beliefs and values.

  • While questions abound regarding whether the free world should have done more sooner to help the victims of the Holocaust, these questions in no way take away from the fact that Americans (and all Allies) in great numbers gave their lives to liberate Europe. The memory of the more than one million United States servicemen and women who were killed and wounded in World War II must be honored.

  • When the Western Allies began to learn about Nazi atrocities, they declared, in December 1942, that at the end of the war leading Nazis would be tried for their part in the unprecedented devastation caused by the war that they had begun and the crimes they had committed. Those among the highest Nazis leaders who were still alive and could be brought to justice were charged with Conspiracy to Wage Aggressive War, Crimes against Peace, War Crimes, and Crimes against Humanity, and were tried at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. In the wake of this trial, others were carried out in many places in Europe; however, in the end, only a small fraction of Nazi criminals were ever brought to justice.


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ABOUT THIS UNIT
Introduction

This unit provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex issues of responsibility and guilt within the context of the Nazi occupation of Europe. Students will also learn about the war crimes trials following World War II and consider the responsibility of the free world to provide a safe haven for refugees attempting to escape Europe. This unit also provides students with an introduction to Holocaust denial as a contemporary form of antisemitism.

Objectives
  • Define collaborator and collaboration within the context of World War II and the Holocaust.

  • Describe the role of those who collaborated with the Nazis during World War II.

  • Explain the role of the railroad system in the implementation of the “Final Solution.”

  • Differentiate between the concepts of “guilt” and “responsibility” when discussing the actions or inactions of individuals or groups during the Holocaust.

  • Explain the purpose and outcomes of the Nuremberg Trials as well as other war crimes trials that took place after the war.

  • Analyze the role and responsibility of the individual perpetrator within the Nazi system by learning about people like Rudolf Hoess and Adolf Eichmann.

  • Summarize the goals and outcomes of the Evian Conference and Bermuda Conference.

  • Evaluate the culpability of the free world in what ultimately happened to the Jews of Europe.

  • Interpret a variety of primary sources including visual history testimony, artwork, and government documents.

  • Define Holocaust denial.

  • Identify the role of the individual to ensure a safe and free society.




ACADEMIC STANDARDS
The materials in this unit address many Common Core State Standards.
View English/LA »
View History/SS »

  TESTIMONY VIDEO GUIDE
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  ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME

90-120 minutes

LESSON PLAN:

Perpetrators and Collaborators of the Holocaust



1Write the following words on the board or on chart paper: “guilt” and “responsibility.” Allow time for students to brainstorm the meaning of each term. Leave the brainstorming activity visible, and encourage students to add to the definitions as they proceed with the lesson.
2Introduce students to Jan Karski and Dennis Urstein and show their testimonies. Follow with a discussion using the questions below.

  JAN KARSKI
Biographical Profile »

  DENNIS URSTEIN
Biographical Profile »
  • In his testimony, Jan Karski talks about his meeting with President Franklin D. Roosevelt. How does he say Roosevelt responded to his questions about what he should tell the Polish people?

  • Does Jan Karski feel the President’s response was adequate? How do you know?

  • What does Dennis Urstein say about what was learned from the Holocaust?

  • In his testimony, Dennis quotes Freud. To whom is he referring? Why do you think he quotes Freud?

  • Who does Dennis believe was guilty for the Holocaust and why?

  • Dennis uses the question “What are we doing about it?” as a call to action. What is he asking people to do?


3Provide students with background information on the role of the railroad system in the implementation of the “Final Solution” in the corresponding Note.

  NOTE
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4Divide the class into small groups and distribute Salitter’s Report. Before they begin reading the document, share with students that men who took jobs like Salitter’s were not forced to do so and that the job was considered prestigious. As students study the document, have them pay close attention to both the tone and language used in the report.

  STUDENT HANDOUT
Salitter's Report View More »
5While reading the report, instruct each group to select a recorder to keep a list of all the people appearing in the document who participated in this deportation. When students have finished reading the document, have them add other people who are not mentioned in the document but who also must have taken part in this deportation (e.g., someone had to write the lists of people who would be sent to their deaths, the neighbors, the people in Riga, the people who would murder them later, the officers who gave the orders).
6In a whole-group discussion, have students answer the questions below, citing textual evidence for their responses whenever possible.
  • What are the main issues that Salitter refers to in the report?

  • In his report on the argument he had with the stationmaster, Salitter complains that the latter clearly does not know the meaning of the term “Jew” and its implications. What does this seem to indicate about Salitter’s attitude toward the task he is performing?

  • What appears to be Salitter’s reason for recommending that the Jews be provided with water?

  • Why might Salitter have attempted to put children with their mothers?

  • Is there any evidence of Salitter’s attitude toward his role or toward Jews in the report? If so, explain his attitude toward each.

  • Based on the report, how would you characterize Salitter’s role in the murder process?

  • Who of the perpetrators mentioned in the report is not German? What was their role?

  • What were their possible motives for collaborating with the Germans?


7Using the notes from the students’ small-group work, prepare a composite list of all the people appearing in the document who participated in the deportation and ultimate fate of Jews in the transport. Have groups also offer additional names of those not mentioned in the document. Next to each person’s name on the list, have students determine, on a scale of 1 to 4, each person’s level of responsibility in what happened to the Jews. Have students support their choices and discuss areas of disagreement.

1 = Not responsible
2 = Minimally responsible
3 = Somewhat responsible
4 = Guilty

8To ensure that students understand the meaning of the words “collaboration” and “collaborator” within the context of World War II and the Holocaust, distribute the Collaborators handout and read together. Follow with a discussion using some or all of the questions below.

  STUDENT HANDOUT
Collaborators View More »
  • Why would people cooperate with the Germans in the military takeover and administration of their countries? (e.g., fear, agreement with the Nazi ideology, opportunity to advance themselves)

  • Why did some people cooperate with the Nazis in the annihilation of the Jews?

  • Why did the Germans use locals to help carry out the “Final Solution”?

  • At what point does not intervening to stop a human catastrophe make a person (or nation) not just a bystander, but a collaborator?

  • Were the collaborators responsible for what happened to the Jews? Explain your answer.




  ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME

90-120 minutes

LESSON PLAN:

War Crimes Trials



1Distribute the War Crimes Trials handout. Have students review the text and answer the questions that follow. [Optional: This can be assigned for homework beforehand or students can read and discuss the questions in small groups.]

  STUDENT HANDOUT
War Crimes Trials View More »
2Introduce students to Edith Coliver and Regina Zielinski; show their clips of testimony, and follow with a discussion using the questions below.

  EDITH COLIVER
Biographical Profile »

  REGINA ZIELINSKI
Biographical Profile »
  • What does Edith Coliver say were her father’s messages to her after he learned that she would go to the Nuremberg Trials as a translator?

  • What information do you learn about Hermann Goering and Rudolf Hoess from listening to Edith’s testimony?

  • How does Edith support her statement “the legacy of Nuremberg is still with us”?

  • When does Regina Zielinski say she was contacted to testify in a war crimes trial? What conclusions can you draw based on that information?

  • What kinds of questions does Regina say she was asked at the trial? What strategies were used to try to trick her while she was testifying?

  • Why was it so difficult for Regina to testify?

  • What is the difference between giving testimony to USC Shoah Foundation and testifying in court?

  • Why was it important to bring witnesses to testify in the war crime trials?

  • Do you think the trials were important? If so, why?


3Distribute the Rudolf Hoess handout and read together as a whole group. Follow with a discussion, using some or all of the questions below. Instruct students to cite textual evidence to support their answers.

  STUDENT HANDOUT
Rudolf Hoess View More »
  • In the handout there are two different sources. What are they? How are the two sources different? Might those differences influence what Hoess says in each? If so, how?

  • What was Hoess’s role in the “Final Solution”?

  • How did Hoess describe the process of gassing at Auschwitz? Based on his choice of words, how would you characterize his tone as he described this process? What does this suggest about his attitude toward his crimes?

  • What was Hoess’s explanation for why he went through with the murders, despite admitting to feeling sympathy for the victims?

  • Does Hoess express any moral reservations about the murder of the Jews? Why does he say that he thinks they were wrong? What does that say about his beliefs?

  • In your opinion, what was the objective of the postwar criminal trials? After reading Hoess’s testimony, do you think these aims were achieved? Explain your response.


4Continue by distributing the Adolf Eichmann handout and read together. Ask students to consider some or all of the following questions:

  STUDENT HANDOUT
Adolf Eichmann View More »
  • What was Eichmann’s role in the “Final Solution”?

  • How were Eichmann’s and Hoess’s roles different?

  • How does Eichmann explain his actions during the war?

  • Eichmann and Hoess defend their actions as soldiers who were only following orders. Do you see this as justification for their actions? Why or why not? What were their choices?

  • After reading Eichmann’s answers, do you think he regretted his actions? Why or why not?

  • Hoess commanded the largest extermination camp—Auschwitz-Birkenau—and was on the site of murder on a daily basis. Eichmann was responsible primarily for the logistics of deportation to camps like Auschwitz-Birkenau. He generally worked out of an office far from those camps, although in his posting in Budapest in 1944, he directed the deportations to that camp. Do you think one of these men was guiltier than the other? Explain your response.

  • What role might ideology have played in the motivations and actions of these men?

  • What does “crimes against humanity” mean? [Optional: Have students look up “crimes against humanity” in the Glossary.]

  • Do you think the perpetrators who carried out the Holocaust can ever be sufficiently punished? Explain your thinking.




  ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME

90-120 minutes

LESSON PLAN:

Bystanders to History: The World’s Response to the Holocaust



1Provide students with background on the MS St Louis using the information provided in the corresponding Note.

  NOTE
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2Introduce students to Sol Messinger and Liesl Loeb and show their clips of testimony. Conduct a whole-group discussion using the following questions:

  SOL MESSINGER
Biographical Profile »

  LIESL LOEB
Biographical Profile »


  IWITNESS ACTIVITY
Voyage of the St. Louis: From Home to Despair
here »
  • What did you learn about the ill-fated journey of the MS St. Louis by watching Sol Messinger’s testimony?

  • How far is Cuba from the United States? How do you think passengers felt being so close to the United States and freedom, but not being allowed to come ashore?

  • What was the significance of “mañana”—the first Spanish word that Sol learned? What did “mañana” mean to the passengers on the MS St. Louis?

  • How does Liesl Loeb describe the emigration process for Jews living in Germany?

  • The quota number Liesl’s parents had was in the 14,000s. She says that by the time her mother’s sister was able to get to the consulate and get a number, they were in the 70,000s. What do these figures tell you about the desire of the Jewish population to leave Germany at the time?

  • How does what these two individuals have shared compare/contrast to treatment of immigrants and/or refugees coming to the United States today?


3As an introduction to the topic of the responsibility that other countries had in intervening in what was taking place in Europe, have students read the statements below (which should be prepared in advance on the board or chart paper) and decide with which position they identify most.

a. Nations should be responsible for the safety of other nations and ethnic groups who are in danger at any cost.

b. Nations should be responsible for the safety of other nations and ethnic groups who are in danger if it suits their interests.

c. Nations should be responsible for the safety of other nations and ethnic groups who are in danger only if it doesn’t cost too much tax money.

d. Nations should be responsible for the safety of other nations and ethnic groups who are in danger if it doesn’t involve risking human lives.

e. Nations should not be responsible for the safety of other nations and ethnic groups who are in danger.

4Divide students into small groups and have them discuss their responses. Emphasize that the goal is not to persuade classmates to change their minds about which statement they chose, but rather to share ideas and thinking on the topic.
5Explain to students that they will examine the issue of ways that the free world reacted to the fate of Jews by studying what came to be referred to as “the Jewish refugee problem.”
6Distribute and read the Evian Conference and Bermuda Conference handouts. Follow with a discussion using the questions below.

  STUDENT HANDOUT
Evian Conference View More »
  STUDENT HANDOUT
Bermuda Conference View More »
  • Compare the two conferences; what were their official goals?

  • What was the outcome of these conferences?

  • Do you believe that antisemitism was a factor in the outcome of these conferences? On what have you based your response?

  • What role, if any, should the United States play in helping to provide a safe haven to refugees from countries where gross human rights violations, genocide, or potential genocide is taking place?


7Introduce students to Felix Nussbaum using information in the corresponding Note and then show The Refugee. Have students study the painting and then share their interpretations of it by discussing the following questions:

  NOTE
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  THE REFUGEE
  • What do you believe the artist was attempting to say to the world through this work?

  • What do you think the globe in the painting represents?

  • What might the bundle next to the man represent?

  • How does the man in the picture perceive the world?

  • Comment on Nussbaum’s choice of color, line, and shape. What is the overall effect of his choices?

  • Do you think this piece of art accurately reflects how Jewish refugees felt during the late 1930s? Identify specific examples from one or more of the texts or visual history testimonies to support your response.

  • Do you think this painting could have meaning for present-day refugees? Explain your thinking.


8Next, show students Portrait of an Unidentified Man. Have students study the painting and then share their interpretations of it by discussing the following questions:

  PORTRAIT OF AN UNIDENTIFIED MAN
  • What do you think the title of this painting means?

  • How does Nussbaum portray gloom and despair in this painting?

  • Compare this painting to The Refugee. What similarities do you see in the artist’s choice of light and color?

  • Does viewing the two paintings together tell a story? If so, what is the story?

  • Do you think that earlier works by Nussbaum (pre-1939) were similar in style to these paintings? Why or why not?


9To help students consider whether Nussbaum’s style was different in his earlier works, show them Shore at Rapallo, and have them discuss the difference in the artist’s style between 1934 and 1939. Explain that Nussbaum painted this picture of Rapallo in 1934, while visiting Italy with his companion and future wife, Felka Platek. Nussbaum spent time at the seaside resort with his parents, who were thinking of settling in Switzerland. This was the last summer that Nussbaum would spend with his parents, who returned to Germany and were eventually deported to Auschwitz and murdered.

  SHORE AT RAPALLO
10Introduce students to Samuel Bak using information in the corresponding Note, and show the painting Thou Shalt Not Kill. Have students study the painting and then share their interpretations of it by discussing the following questions:

  NOTE
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  THOU SHALT NOT KILL, DIPTYCH
  • What do you believe Samuel Bak was attempting to say to the world through this work?

  • Why do you think he chose this symbol to express his idea?

  • Who do you think the artist addresses in this painting?

  • Comment on Bak’s choice of color, line, and shape. What is the overall effect of his choices?


11Provide students with background information on the debate regarding the role of the United States and other Allies with respect to the Holocaust available in the corresponding Note.

  NOTE
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12In small groups or as a whole class, read each of the excerpts listed on the Primary Source Readings  handout. After determining the central idea of each excerpt, have students develop a list of essential questions based on the documents to stimulate additional thought and inquiry on the topic of how United States’ officials responded to events as they were unfolding in Europe from 1933 to 1944.

  STUDENT HANDOUT
Primary Source Readings View More »


  ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME

150-180 minutes

LESSON PLAN:

Holocaust Denial



1Have students consider the meaning of the word “denial” and “revisionism” and then discuss the meaning of “Holocaust denial.” [Optional: Have students look up “Holocaust denial” and “revisionism” in the Glossary.]
2Introduce students to Brigitte Altman and show her testimony. Discuss the following questions:

  BRIGITTE ALTMAN
Biographical Profile »
  • What does Brigitte Altman say is the goal of Holocaust revisionists?

  • How does Brigitte respond to those who say the Holocaust never happened?


3The issue of Holocaust denial is a difficult and complex topic. It may be approached by asking the students if they think that it is possible, based upon the evidence that they have studied, to question that the Holocaust really occurred. Explain that some antisemitic groups and individuals have stated that the Holocaust did not really happen. These deniers make the following claims:

  NOTE
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a. The number of Jews murdered (six million) is a gross exaggeration.
b. There was no Nazi program to exterminate Europe’s Jews.
c. Mass killings in gas chambers did not occur.
d. Jews were one of many groups who suffered during World War II and were not singled out for persecution.

4Individually or in small groups, have students research the topic of Holocaust denial with emphasis on the questions below. Encourage students to consult the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (ushmm.org) and Southern Poverty Law Center (splcenter.org) websites while conducting their research. Have students share their findings in a whole-group discussion.
  • Who are the individuals and groups who have promoted Holocaust denial? Describe their political agendas.

  • What arguments do they use to back up their claims?

  • What arguments can you use to counter their claims?

  • What court cases have centered on the issue of Holocaust denial?


5Tell students that one way that those who deny the Holocaust have spread their propaganda in the past has been by purchasing scholarly sounding ads in college and community newspapers. Today much of their activity is through the Internet and social media, where there is a tremendous amount of material that promotes the denial and distortion of the Holocaust. Among other central ideas, they frequently call for an “open debate on the Holocaust,” and claim that while Nazi antisemitism did exist, this hatred did not result in an organized killing program. They also question the authenticity of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC and other major museums and archives around the world. In Canada and Western Europe, Holocaust deniers have been successfully prosecuted under racial defamation or hate crimes laws. In the United States, however, the First Amendment guarantees the right of free speech, regardless of political content. While the First Amendment guarantees Holocaust deniers the right to produce and distribute their propaganda, it in no way obligates social media, Internet service providers, and other media outlets to provide them with a forum for their views.
6Explain to students that they will now assume the role of a college newspaper staff. Following an intensive campaign to secure new ads to financially support their print and/or online school paper, they have been approached about publishing a Holocaust denial ad. The group is divided on the issue—half the “newspaper staff” believes that a Holocaust denial ad should be allowed to be published in the school newspaper and the other half believes it should not be permitted. Have students either self-select their side of the argument or randomly assign half the class to the argument in favor of printing the ad and half the class to the argument against printing the ad. Have groups develop their arguments and conduct a debate on the topic.
7Have a closing discussion that asks students to consider some or all of the following questions:

  NOTE
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  • Do you think that Holocaust denial is a contemporary form of antisemitism? On what do you base your response?

  • If you believe Holocaust denial is a form of antisemitism, why has this expression of hatred been so slow to disappear from society?

  • Why is Holocaust denial dangerous?

  • Why is it important to be aware of Holocaust denial?

  • What is the role of individuals in the face of this phenomenon?


Reflect & Respond

The questions below, used in class or as homework, prompt students to reflect on what they are learning and its meaning in their own lives and in society.

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These queries are excellent for journaling, allowing students to create their own primary source material. Keep in mind, the sensitive and emotional nature of the topics may preclude teacher evaluation. If journaling is used as an assessment tool, assure students that they will not be evaluated negatively for expressing opinions that may be different from others in class or from the teacher’s.

  • In her testimony, Edith Coliver states: We were hoping that this [the Nuremberg Trials] would pave the way for the vanquished to try the victors. It didn’t happen. Many Holocaust survivors have said that justice after the Holocaust was never achieved. What do you think made survivors feel this way? What does the concept of justice mean to you? Do you think it is possible that justice could ever be served with an event the magnitude of the Holocaust?

  • Reflect on the meaning of British historian Sir Ian Kershaw’s assertion that the road to Auschwitz was built by hate, but paved with indifference. What do you think Kenshaw means by this statement? What have you learned about bystanders that would support his sentiment?

  • Write about your feelings toward your country and its role in the Holocaust. As you respond, consider what you see as the role of the United States in current world conflicts.

  • When human catastrophes occur, especially a catastrophe the magnitude of the Holocaust how is responsibility determined? Are there levels of responsibility or is everyone— perpetrator, collaborator, and bystander—ultimately equally responsible and, therefore, equally guilty for the crimes committed? What is the difference between responsibility and guilt?

  • What is the role of the individual within a society to ensure that all of its citizens are free and safe? Is the responsibility of an individual in a democratic society even greater than that of an individual living in an autocratic society? Why or why not? Should the individual play the same or a similar role regarding the freedom and safety of people outside his or her community or country?

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Making Connections

The additional activities and projects listed below can be integrated directly into the lessons in this unit or can be used to extend lessons once they have been completed. The topics lend themselves to students’ continued study of the Holocaust as well as opportunities for students to make meaningful connections to other people and events, including relevant contemporary issues. These activities may include instructional strategies and techniques and/or address academic standards in addition to those that were identified for the unit.

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1Visit IWitness (iwitness.usc.edu) for testimonies, resources, and activities to help students learn more about topics covered in this unit.
2Provide students with a copy of Salitter’s Report and Hilde Sherman’s Testimony, two documents from two different points of view, which outline the transport of 1,007 Jews in December 1941 from Dusseldorf to Riga. Have students carefully study the two texts, noting similarities and differences in the description of places, the sequence of events, how people interacted over the course of the transport, etc., and present their findings in a graphic organizer (e.g., Venn diagram).
3Instruct students to research the facts behind the proposed bombing of Auschwitz and conduct a debate to discuss whether or not Auschwitz should have been bombed by the Allies.
4Have students research how the Holocaust was covered in media, especially newspapers, in their state, city, or town. After gathering relevant information, instruct students to develop an argument to support or refute the idea that this event was accurately covered and reported to the public. If unable to locate local or state coverage, research how the Holocaust was covered in national media (e.g., The New York Times). Have students prepare a written or oral summary of their findings and conclusions. Encourage students to develop and respond to essential questions that this research prompts, e.g., “Had large media outlets like The New York Times done more to cover the Holocaust, would it have galvanized other media to do the same?” “Why was the media hesitant to cover what was happening to the Jews of Europe or, if they did cover these events, why were the articles buried inside the paper?” “What is the role of media in alerting and educating the public about events happening in the world?”
5During the  1994 genocide  in  Rwanda,  up  to  one million  people  perished  and  as  many  as 250,000 women were raped, leaving the country’s population traumatized and its infrastructure decimated. Since then, Rwanda has embarked on an ambitious justice and reconciliation process with the ultimate aim of all Rwandans once again living in peace. In the years following the genocide, more than 120,000 people were detained and accused of bearing criminal responsibility for their participation in the murder of ethnic Tutsis. To deal with such an overwhelming number of perpetrators, a judicial response was pursued on three levels:
  • the International Criminal Tribunal for  Rwanda,

  • the national court system, and

  • the Gacaca courts.

Have students research the structure and goals of each of these responses as well as what the effects have been on reconstructing Rwandan identity and securing justice for the victims and their families. Encourage students to gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources and present their findings in a PowerPoint or cloud-based presentation (e.g., Prezi), a written report, or decide on another format to present their work.

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KEY WORDS
Allies
antisemitism
Auschwitz-Birkenau  
Bermuda Conference
bystander
collaboration
concentration camp
crimes against humanity
Eichmann Trial
Einsatzgruppen  
European Jewry
Evian Conference
extermination camp
Fascism
“Final Solution”
genocide
ghetto
Great Depression
hate group
Holocaust
Holocaust denial
nationalism
Nazi
Nazi ideology
Nuremberg Trials
Palestine
partisans
perpetrator
propaganda
refugee
Reich  
revisionism
“Righteous Among the Nations”
Sobibor  
SS  
survivor
Vichy  
Wannsee Conference  
war crimes trial
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