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Resource Overview

Pedagogy for Instruction

Lesson Plans

Timeline of the Holocaust

Audio Glossary


Schindler's List

Classroom Poster Series

We Share The Same Sky Companion Resource

TEACH

LESSON PLAN
EDUCATOR RESOURCE: LESSON PLANS
Our Lesson Plans provide a unique experience for educators to teach about the Holocaust effectively and interactively. Lessons are organized by topics that represent major themes associated with the Holocaust in an order that is roughly chronological; the modular design of the Lessons allows for adaption and customization to specific grade levels and subject areas. The integration of rich content in each Lesson helps students construct an authentic and comprehensive portrait of the past as they frame their own thoughts about what they are learning, resulting in a deeper level of interest and inquiry. Each lesson includes:
  • Step-by-step procedures
  • Estimated completion time
  • Resources labeled by icons        direct teachers to the piece of content named in the procedures
  • Print-ready pages as indicated by  are available as PDFs for download
For more information, questions or concerns please contact us.
PEDAGOGY PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE HOLOCAUST INSTRUCTION

PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE HOLOCAUST INSTRUCTION



December 2018 marks the 25th anniversary of the release of Steven Spielberg’s Schindler’s List, which depicts the true story of Oskar Schindler—a man who saved the lives of more than 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust. It was Spielberg’s experience making this film that inspired him to collect and preserve the testimonies of over 54,000 Holocaust survivors and witnesses, a pursuit which ultimately led to the creation of what is now USC Shoah Foundation.

In honor of Universal Pictures’ rerelease of Schindler’s List, Echoes & Reflections has created a short, classroom-ready Companion Resource, that will help educators to provide important historical background and context to the film, as well as explore powerful true stories of rescue, survival, and resilience with their students.

Additionally, the following videos, recorded at Yad Vashem, feature Schindler survivors who speak of the impact Oskar Schindler had on their lives.


EVA LAVI TESTIMONY
Eva Lavi was the youngest survivor from Schindler’s list. She was two years old when the war began.
WATCH
EVA LAVI TESTIMONY
NAHUM & GENIA MANOR
Nahum Manor met and fell in love with his wife, Genia, in Schindler’s factory. Watch him read a letter at Schindler’s gravesite, expressing what he meant to them.
WATCH
NAHUM & GENIA MANOR




Visit the IWitness page commemorating the 25th anniversary of Schindler’s List for numerous additional resources to support teaching with this film.

CLASSROOM POSTER SERIES
INSPIRING THE HUMAN STORY
Echoes & Reflections is excited to announce that our poster series: Inspiring the Human Story, is now available in PDF format, free of cost.

The posters feature the powerful words and experiences of Holocaust survivor and memoirist Elie Wiesel, Holocaust survivor Kurt Messerschmidt, and Anne Frank rescuer, Miep Gies. Each poster promotes meaningful conversation and reflection in the classroom, whether in person or in a virtual setting, and inspires students with powerful human stories of the Holocaust that can continue to guide agency and action as a result of studying this topic.

To support you in these efforts, we have also compiled several suggested classroom activities from teachers in our network that may be of use and interest.



Please fill out the form below to access and download your PDF posters.

WE SHARE THE SAME SKY

USC Shoah Foundation’s first podcast, We Share The Same Sky, seeks to brings the past into present through a granddaughter’s decade-long journey to retrace her grandmother’s story of survival. We Share The Same Sky tells the two stories of these women—the grandmother, Hana, a refugee who remained one step ahead of the Nazis at every turn, and the granddaughter, Rachael, on a search to retrace her grandmother’s history.



A self-portrait of Rachael while she is living on a Danish farm that is owned by the granddaughter of Hana’s foster mother from World War II. Photo by Rachael Cerrotti, 2017

In order to enhance its classroom use, USC Shoah Foundation and Echoes & Reflections have created a Companion Educational Resource to support teachers as they introduce the podcast to their students. This document provides essential questions for students, as well as additional resources and content to help build context and framing for students’ understanding of the historical events addressed in the podcast.

Access to the podcast, as well as additional supporting materials—including IWitness student activities, academic standards alignment, and general strategies for teaching with podcasts—can all be found at the We Share The Same Sky page in IWitness.

Note: Due to the subject nature, the podcast is appropriate for older students, grades 10-12. As always, teachers should review the content fully in advance to determine its appropriateness for their student population.



After many years of research and digitizing the archive her grandmother left behind, Rachael set out to retrace her grandmother’s 17 years of statelessness. Her intention was to travel via the same modes of transportation and to live similar style lives as to what her grandmother did during the war and in the years after. That meant that when she got to Denmark, she moved to a farm. Rachael moved in with the granddaughter of her grandmother’s foster mother from World War II and traded her labor for room and board as Hana once did. This picture is from that first visit in the winter of 2015. Since this time, Rachael has spent many more months living on this farm. It is owned by Sine Christiansen and her family. Sine is the granddaughter of Jensine, one Hana’s foster mother from World War II. Photo by Rachael Cerrotti, 2015


A self portrait of Rachael overlooking the exact spot in Southern Sweden where her grandmother’s refugee boat came to shore in 1943. Photo by Rachael Cerrotti, 2016


  ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME

150-180 minutes

LESSON PLAN:

The Role of the US and Responsibility of Nations


Introduction  
This lesson will help students understand the role the US and other nations played in immigration of Jewish and other refugees during the Holocaust. Using primary source materials, students will look at attitudes of everyday Americans at the time and examples of failed rescue efforts. Students will foster empathy with Jewish refugees in their desperation to leave Nazi Germany while pondering the responsibility of the US to help those in imminent danger throughout the world.
    1Students skim the Echoes & Reflections Timeline of the Holocaust through the years 1933-1945, noting the Evian Conference of July 6, 1938, and the Bermuda Conference of April 19, 1943. Students consider how much they think the average American knew at various stages about what was happening in Nazi-occupied Europe. Students learn that American newspapers actually ran many stories about events happening in Nazi Germany, including actions of mass murder.
    2Utilizing the United States Memorial and Museum’s Americans and the Holocaust online exhibition, students view the Public Opinion Polls that were conducted at various points throughout the Holocaust. Students learn that the first poll taken after Kristallnacht showed 94% of Americans disapproved of Nazi violence against Jews but 71% did not believe in allowing more Jews to enter the US.
    3Students read The Otto Frank Letter handout. As they read, students highlight sections/lines that show attempts made by Otto Frank to leave his country and come to the US. Then, students discuss the following questions:  pin1

      STUDENT HANDOUT
    The Otto Frank Letter View More »

      STUDENT HANDOUT
    The Refugee View More »

      NOTE
    View More »
    • What barriers to leave Germany existed for the Frank family? What is he asking the recipient of the letter to do?

    • Now look at The Refugee painting. What do you believe the artist was attempting to say to the world through this work?

    • What emotions are conveyed by the painting and the letter? How do these two pieces represent the Jewish refugee experience of the 1930s? Cite specific evidence from the letter and the painting.

    • Do you think this painting could have meaning for present-day refugees? Explain your thinking.


    4Students watch the testimony of [L]Liesl Loeb[/L]. In small groups or as an entire class, students discuss the following questions:
      1. The quota number Liesl’s parents had was in the 14,000s. She says that by the time her mother’s sister was able to get to the consulate and get a number, they were in the 70,000s. What do these figures tell you about the desire of the Jewish population to leave Germany at the time?
      2. How does Liesl describe the emigration process for Jews living in Germany? What were some of the unofficial barriers that US officials had put in place to restrict the amount of Jewish refugees able to leave Germany for the US?
        LIESL LOEB
      5Students read the Evian Conference and Bermuda Conference handouts and discuss the following questions:

        STUDENT HANDOUT
      Evian Conference View More »

        STUDENT HANDOUT
      Bermuda Conference View More »
      • Compare the two conferences; what were their official goals?

      • What was the outcome of these conferences?

      • Do you believe that antisemitism was a factor in the outcome of these conferences? On what have you based your response?

      • What role, if any, should the United States play in helping to provide a safe haven to refugees from countries where gross human rights violations, genocide, or potential genocide is taking place?


      6Students are introduced with background information about the MS St. Louis using the information provided in the corresponding note.  pin1

        NOTE
      View More »
      7Students watch the testimony of [L]Sol Messinger[/L] and discuss the following questions:
        1. What did you learn about the ill-fated journey of the MS St. Louis by watching Sol Messinger’s testimony?
        2. How far is Cuba from the United States? How do you think passengers felt being so close to the United States and freedom, but not being allowed to come ashore?
          SOL MESSINGER
        8Next, students watch the testimony of [L]Jan Karski[/L] as he discusses meeting with President Roosevelt about the situation of the Jews in Poland. Students reflect on the following questions, either in a journal entry or in small groups:
          1. How did President Roosevelt respond? Does Jan Karski feel the President’s response was adequate? How do you know?
          2. After analyzing the Evian Conference of 1938, Sol’s experience being turned away by Cuba and the United States while aboard the MS St Louis in 1939, the implementation of the Final Solution in 1941, the Bermuda Conference of 1943, and the meeting of Karski with President Roosevelt in July 1943, do you feel the US response to the pleas of Jewish refugees was adequate at different points in time based on the knowledge it had about what was happening to the Jews of Europe?
          3. Thousands of Jews were saved by the actions of individuals, and generally not from the many governments and institutions who had pledged to save them but largely failed. Consider the decision by the Allies to prioritize winning the war over disrupting or stopping the genocide. Evaluate the actions of governments, including the United States, in their roles as deeply flawed rescuers and victors over Nazism.
            JAN KARSKI

            IWITNESS ACTIVITY
          Voyage of the St. Louis: From Hope to Despair
          here »
          9As a summative task, students refocus on the plight of the victims and the human story that their experiences teach us. The poem, Refugee Blues by W. H. Auden is distributed. Students read together or individually and discuss the following questions:
            1. Who is the intended audience? What was the author’s purpose for writing this poem?
            2. What images and emotions are evoked by the poem? Cite textual evidence.
            3. What does the author want the reader to think, do, and understand after having read this poem?
            4. Does this poem have significance today? Explain.

              STUDENT HANDOUT
            Refugee Blues View More »
            MAKING CONNECTIONS  

            The ideas below are offered as ways to extend the lessons in this unit and make connections to related historical events, current issues, and students’ own experiences. These topics can be integrated directly into Echoes & Reflections lessons, used as stand-alone teaching ideas, or investigated by students engaged in project-based learning.

            View More +
            1Newspapers are an excellent source of information when studying the Holocaust, and one way to engage students is to have them research news that was reported from their own town or city’s newspaper. Students should utilize Echoes & Reflections Timeline of the Holocaust with the United States Holocaust Memorial and Museum’s History Unfolded project to research how certain events were reported in their local newspapers. Create a visual representation of certain events that happened during the Holocaust in juxtaposition to newspaper articles reporting on them from the United States.
            2Artists like Felix Neusbaum used their artwork not only as a catharsis, but also as a message to the world about their situations. Look at work done by artists today that speaks to the life of refugees and discuss the power of art to give voice to injustices. Create your own artwork to highlight an injustice or atrocity in the world today.
            3Students watch the film A Night at the Garden. While watching, students fill out the graphic organizer and answer the questions on the A Night at the Garden handout. For more information, go to the website behind the film: https://anightatthegarden.com/.

              STUDENT HANDOUT
            A Night at the Garden View More »
            4A common question asked is “Did all Germans agree with Hitler?” While the Nazis ran a totalitarian state, making it difficult for many to resist, a few Germans did act against the tyranny. Two examples include the Hampels and the White Rose. As students learn about them, discuss the challenges each faced, as well as the risks they took and why they were willing to do so. All were executed for their actions. Students should consider whether examples like these should be amplified as role models, or downplayed, since most Germans did not act in such a manner.
            5This unit includes information about the mass shootings that occurred in Eastern Europe. For more information, visit Yad Vashem’s Untold Stories page and Killing Sites Online Guide, as well as yahadinunum.org to learn about Father Patrick Desbois’ work in locating these mass graves and interviewing witnesses, many of whom were requisitioned to assist in these killings. Students can view videos of witnesses, most of whom were children at the time, and use the interactive map to locate towns and villages where the mass shootings took place.
            6The United States did make some attempts to rescue Jewish refugees during the Holocaust, although small and somewhat ineffectively. Research the Wagners-Rogers Bill, the War Refugee Board, and the Fort Ontario Emergency Refugee Shelter in Oswego, New York. Consider the responsibility of the United States to do more to rescue refugees during the war, especially since it was the end of World War II and an Allied victory that ultimately ended the Holocaust. Write a journal response or short essay discussing your findings and analyzing the role the United States played in helping Jewish refugees.
            6There is an ongoing refugee crisis continuing today, the largest since the end of World War II. Utilize the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees website to learn more about the current situation. Consider research polls gauging the public’s thoughts and fears on accepting more newcomers today. How are those similar to opinions during the Holocaust? Consider comparing quotes said by US leaders at both times, such as FDR’s fear of allowing Jewish refugees into the US: “Now, of course, the refugee has got to be checked because, unfortunately, among the refugees there are some spies” (June 5, 1940) with US House Speaker Paul Ryan’s hesitancy in taking Syrian refugees after the attacks in Paris in 2015, which was falsely blamed on Syrians. Ryan warned, “We cannot allow terrorists to take advantage of our compassion. This is a moment where it is better to be safe than sorry.” (November 17, 2015).

            Close -


              ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME

            120-150 minutes

            LESSON PLAN:

            Collaborators and Perpetrators


            Introduction  

            In this lesson, students analyze the roles of collaborators and perpetrators in the Holocaust, and will consider the circumstances, potential choices versus choices made, and actions of those who decided to collaborate. They will also see the fluidity of the roles; one does not necessarily remain in one role, but can move from one to another based on one’s circumstances, choices, and actions.

              Note: While we may expect to see names of high-profile Nazis here, e.g. Mengele, Eichmann, or Himmler, this lesson instead focuses on rank-and-file Nazis and collaborators, those who worked for and with the Nazis to enable the Final Solution. You should note that these people were human beings with agency who made choices and acted upon them. You should also note the ease with which many collaborators moved into the role of perpetrator based on choices they made in their positions.

              1In pairs or in small groups, students define the terms collaborator and perpetrator, utilizing as many adjectives as possible. As a class, the two terms are discussed with a definition agreed upon for each term. OPTIONAL: Students can return and add to their previous concept map to put the concepts of bystanders, collaborators, and perpetrators in conversation with each other.
              2Students learn they are going to read parts of an official report by German officer Paul Salitter side-by-side with Jewish victim Hilde Sherman’s testimony about similar events. (Brief biographies can be found in this note.  pin1) The handout, Report by Salitter and Memoir of Hilde Sherman, is distributed and in small groups, students focus on one of the four sections and complete their specific section in the Salitter and Sherman Graphic Organizer. Students may also watch Teaching about Nazi Perpetrators for information about the Salitter Report.

                NOTE
              View More »
                STUDENT HANDOUT
              Report by Salitter and Memoir of Hilde Sherman View More »

                STUDENT HANDOUT
              Salitter and Sherman Graphic Organizer View More »
              3When finished, each group presents its findings to the class, citing textual evidence from Salitter and Sherman. As a class, students discuss some of the following questions:
              • What are some similarities and some differences between the two accounts?

              • Compare and contrast the word choices and tones of Salitter and Sherman.

              • Based on the report, how would you characterize Salitter’s role in the murder process?

              • Where did Salitter have the opportunity to make different choices? What would be some of his motivations for collaborating with the Nazis or potentially choosing a different course of action?

              • What are some other roles portrayed in these accounts? How would you characterize them (perpetrators, bystanders, collaborators)?

              • What emotions does Sherman’s testimony raise? Mark specific sentences from Sherman’s testimony that expose the brutality and violence of the guards. Why do you think Salitter’s report lacks these references?


              4Students watch testimony of a Polish Jew in hiding who was exposed and betrayed to the Nazis by people she knew: [L]Dora Iwler[/L]. As they watch the clips, students take notes on the Testimony Reflections handout. After viewing the clips, the class discusses the following questions:
                1. How was Dora discovered by the Nazis? Who came to arrest her?
                2. Why do you think Dora’s former classmates turned her in? Why do you think the Polish man collaborated with the Nazi who came to arrest her?
                3. Many Jews were betrayed by their neighbors, former friends, and others who turned them over to the Nazis, sometimes for a monetary reward, sometimes to curry favor with the Nazis, and sometimes for reasons as personal as jealousy or a past feud. Antisemitism was also a factor, as was revenge. Usually, the arrested Jews would be murdered. How would you categorize people such as Dora’s former classmates who alerted the Nazis to where she was staying? Were they perpetrators? Collaborators? What responsibility do they bear for their actions?
                  DORA IWLER

                  STUDENT HANDOUT
                Testimony Reflections View More »
                5Students annotate the handout, Profiting from Hatred, highlighting what they find important while pondering what responsibility major corporations should have for collaborating, profiting, and providing the infrastructure necessary to commit murder on a mass scale.

                  STUDENT HANDOUT
                Profiting from Hatred View More »
                6Students view the testimony of [L]Silvia Grohs-Martin[/L] as she describes performing forced labor for Siemens while she was imprisoned at Ravensbruck concentration camp. Discuss some or all of the following questions:
                  • As Silvia mentions, there were civilian laborers who worked alongside prisoners at factories located in and near concentration camps such as Siemens at Ravensbruck. Some ignored the inmates but others made different choices, from giving food, mailing letters for them, and treating them with kindness. What were the options for civilians who worked for a company that utilized forced laborers or provided the equipment needed to build a camp?
                  • How would you categorize the German citizens who were Siemens employees who worked alongside prisoners such as Silvia?
                  • From engineers to secretaries, teachers to doctors, lawyers to judges, what responsibility did typical Germans bear for their role in supporting Nazi Germany and the perpetration of the Holocaust? Do you feel that these different roles change their level of responsibility?
                  • What do the decisions these individual companies made say about the people in charge of the company? What responsibility do they have for their role in the Holocaust?
                    Silvia Grohs-Martin
                  7Students read the handout, Letters from Karl Kretschmer to His Family, and annotate with a focus on Kretschmer’s activities and his relationship with his wife and children. Next, discuss the following questions:  pin1

                    STUDENT HANDOUT
                  Letters from Karl Kretschmer to His Family View More »

                    NOTE
                  View More »
                  • How did Kretschmer participate in the perpetration of the Holocaust? How does Kretschmer justify his actions, as explained to his family in his letters? What reasons does he give for why his actions are acceptable and even honorable?

                  • What do his letters say about the claim that everyday Germans didn’t know what was happening?

                  • How did the love of family members at home help perpetrators cope with their actions and even normalize the crimes that they were committing?

                  • In the letters there is evidence that perpetrators were in favor of disciplining their emotional “weakness” and overcoming feelings of human sympathy. Where can you find such evidence? What does this say about perpetrator behavior?


                  8On the concept map, where do each of the examples in this lesson fall in terms of guilt and responsibility?


                    ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME

                  150-180 minutes

                  LESSON PLAN:

                  The Role of the US and Responsibility of Nations


                  Introduction  
                  This lesson will help students understand the role the US and other nations played in immigration of Jewish and other refugees during the Holocaust. Using primary source materials, students will look at attitudes of everyday Americans at the time and examples of failed rescue efforts. Students will foster empathy with Jewish refugees in their desperation to leave Nazi Germany while pondering the responsibility of the US to help those in imminent danger throughout the world.
                    1Students skim the Echoes & Reflections Timeline of the Holocaust through the years 1933-1945, noting the Evian Conference of July 6, 1938, and the Bermuda Conference of April 19, 1943. Students consider how much they think the average American knew at various stages about what was happening in Nazi-occupied Europe. Students learn that American newspapers actually ran many stories about events happening in Nazi Germany, including actions of mass murder.
                    2Utilizing the United States Memorial and Museum’s Americans and the Holocaust online exhibition, students view the Public Opinion Polls that were conducted at various points throughout the Holocaust. Students learn that the first poll taken after Kristallnacht showed 94% of Americans disapproved of Nazi violence against Jews but 71% did not believe in allowing more Jews to enter the US.
                    3Students read The Otto Frank Letter handout. As they read, students highlight sections/lines that show attempts made by Otto Frank to leave his country and come to the US. Then, students discuss the following questions:  pin1

                      STUDENT HANDOUT
                    The Otto Frank Letter View More »
                      STUDENT HANDOUT
                    The Refugee View More »
                      NOTE
                    View More »
                    • What barriers to leave Germany existed for the Frank family? What is he asking the recipient of the letter to do?

                    • Now look at The Refugee painting. What do you believe the artist was attempting to say to the world through this work?

                    • What emotions are conveyed by the painting and the letter? How do these two pieces represent the Jewish refugee experience of the 1930s? Cite specific evidence from the letter and the painting.

                    • Do you think this painting could have meaning for present-day refugees? Explain your thinking.


                    4Students watch the testimony of [L]Liesl Loeb[/L]. In small groups or as an entire class, students discuss the following questions:
                      1. The quota number Liesl’s parents had was in the 14,000s. She says that by the time her mother’s sister was able to get to the consulate and get a number, they were in the 70,000s. What do these figures tell you about the desire of the Jewish population to leave Germany at the time?
                      2. How does Liesl describe the emigration process for Jews living in Germany? What were some of the unofficial barriers that US officials had put in place to restrict the amount of Jewish refugees able to leave Germany for the US?
                        LIESL LOEB
                      5Students read the Evian Conference and Bermuda Conference handouts and discuss the following questions:

                        STUDENT HANDOUT
                      Evian Conference View More »
                        STUDENT HANDOUT
                      Bermuda Conference View More »
                      • Compare the two conferences; what were their official goals?

                      • What was the outcome of these conferences?

                      • Do you believe that antisemitism was a factor in the outcome of these conferences? On what have you based your response?

                      • What role, if any, should the United States play in helping to provide a safe haven to refugees from countries where gross human rights violations, genocide, or potential genocide is taking place?


                      6Students are introduced with background information about the MS St. Louis using the information provided in the corresponding note.  pin1

                        NOTE
                      View More »
                      7Students watch the testimony of [L]Sol Messinger[/L] and discuss the following questions:
                        1. What did you learn about the ill-fated journey of the MS St. Louis by watching Sol Messinger’s testimony?
                        2. How far is Cuba from the United States? How do you think passengers felt being so close to the United States and freedom, but not being allowed to come ashore?
                          SOL MESSINGER
                        8Next, students watch the testimony of [L]Jan Karski[/L] as he discusses meeting with President Roosevelt about the situation of the Jews in Poland. Students reflect on the following questions, either in a journal entry or in small groups:
                          1. How did President Roosevelt respond? Does Jan Karski feel the President’s response was adequate? How do you know?
                          2. After analyzing the Evian Conference of 1938, Sol’s experience being turned away by Cuba and the United States while aboard the MS St Louis in 1939, the implementation of the Final Solution in 1941, the Bermuda Conference of 1943, and the meeting of Karski with President Roosevelt in July 1943, do you feel the US response to the pleas of Jewish refugees was adequate at different points in time based on the knowledge it had about what was happening to the Jews of Europe?
                          3. Thousands of Jews were saved by the actions of individuals, and generally not from the many governments and institutions who had pledged to save them but largely failed. Consider the decision by the Allies to prioritize winning the war over disrupting or stopping the genocide. Evaluate the actions of governments, including the United States, in their roles as deeply flawed rescuers and victors over Nazism.
                            JAN KARSKI


                            IWITNESS ACTIVITY
                          Voyage of the St. Louis: From Hope to Despair
                          here »
                          9As a summative task, students refocus on the plight of the victims and the human story that their experiences teach us. The poem, Refugee Blues by W. H. Auden is distributed. Students read together or individually and discuss the following questions:
                            1. Who is the intended audience? What was the author’s purpose for writing this poem?
                            2. What images and emotions are evoked by the poem? Cite textual evidence.
                            3. What does the author want the reader to think, do, and understand after having read this poem?
                            4. Does this poem have significance today? Explain.

                              STUDENT HANDOUT
                            Refugee Blues View More »
                            MAKING CONNECTIONS  

                            The ideas below are offered as ways to extend the lessons in this unit and make connections to related historical events, current issues, and students’ own experiences. These topics can be integrated directly into Echoes & Reflections lessons, used as stand-alone teaching ideas, or investigated by students engaged in project-based learning.

                            View More +
                            1Newspapers are an excellent source of information when studying the Holocaust, and one way to engage students is to have them research news that was reported from their own town or city’s newspaper. Students should utilize Echoes & Reflections Timeline of the Holocaust with the United States Holocaust Memorial and Museum’s History Unfolded project to research how certain events were reported in their local newspapers. Create a visual representation of certain events that happened during the Holocaust in juxtaposition to newspaper articles reporting on them from the United States.
                            2Artists like Felix Neusbaum used their artwork not only as a catharsis, but also as a message to the world about their situations. Look at work done by artists today that speaks to the life of refugees and discuss the power of art to give voice to injustices. Create your own artwork to highlight an injustice or atrocity in the world today.
                            3Students watch the film A Night at the Garden. While watching, students fill out the graphic organizer and answer the questions on the A Night at the Garden handout. For more information, go to the website behind the film: https://anightatthegarden.com/.

                              STUDENT HANDOUT
                            A Night at the Garden View More »
                            4A common question asked is “Did all Germans agree with Hitler?” While the Nazis ran a totalitarian state, making it difficult for many to resist, a few Germans did act against the tyranny. Two examples include the Hampels and the White Rose. As students learn about them, discuss the challenges each faced, as well as the risks they took and why they were willing to do so. All were executed for their actions. Students should consider whether examples like these should be amplified as role models, or downplayed, since most Germans did not act in such a manner.
                            5This unit includes information about the mass shootings that occurred in Eastern Europe. For more information, visit Yad Vashem’s Untold Stories page and Killing Sites Online Guide, as well as yahadinunum.org to learn about Father Patrick Desbois’ work in locating these mass graves and interviewing witnesses, many of whom were requisitioned to assist in these killings. Students can view videos of witnesses, most of whom were children at the time, and use the interactive map to locate towns and villages where the mass shootings took place.
                            6The United States did make some attempts to rescue Jewish refugees during the Holocaust, although small and somewhat ineffectively. Research the Wagners-Rogers Bill, the War Refugee Board, and the Fort Ontario Emergency Refugee Shelter in Oswego, New York. Consider the responsibility of the United States to do more to rescue refugees during the war, especially since it was the end of World War II and an Allied victory that ultimately ended the Holocaust. Write a journal response or short essay discussing your findings and analyzing the role the United States played in helping Jewish refugees.
                            6There is an ongoing refugee crisis continuing today, the largest since the end of World War II. Utilize the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees website to learn more about the current situation. Consider research polls gauging the public’s thoughts and fears on accepting more newcomers today. How are those similar to opinions during the Holocaust? Consider comparing quotes said by US leaders at both times, such as FDR’s fear of allowing Jewish refugees into the US: “Now, of course, the refugee has got to be checked because, unfortunately, among the refugees there are some spies” (June 5, 1940) with US House Speaker Paul Ryan’s hesitancy in taking Syrian refugees after the attacks in Paris in 2015, which was falsely blamed on Syrians. Ryan warned, “We cannot allow terrorists to take advantage of our compassion. This is a moment where it is better to be safe than sorry.” (November 17, 2015).
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