Resource Overview

Pedagogy for Instruction

Lesson Plans

I. Studying the Holocaust

II. Antisemitism

III. Nazi Germany

IV. The Ghettos

V. The “Final Solution”

VI. Liberation

VII. Jewish Resistance

VIII. Rescue and Righteous Among the Nations

IX. Complicity and Responsibility

X. Justice, Life, and Memory After the Holocaust

XI. Gringlas Unit on Contemporary Antisemitism

XII. Teaching About Genocide

Digital Student Activities

Podcast for Students

Timeline of the Holocaust

Audio Glossary

Upper Elementary Guidelines

Schindler's List

Classroom Poster Series

We Share The Same Sky Companion Resource


Our Lesson Plans provide a unique experience for educators to teach about the Holocaust effectively and interactively. The modular design of the lessons found within each unit allow for adaption and customization to specific grade levels and subject areas. The integration of rich content helps students construct an authentic and comprehensive portrait of the past as they frame their own thoughts about what they are learning, resulting in a deeper level of interest and inquiry. Each lesson includes:
  • Step-by-step procedures
  • Estimated completion time
  • Resources labeled by icons        direct teachers to the piece of content named in the procedures
  • Print-ready pages as indicated by  are available as PDFs for download
If you are new to teaching about the Holocaust, we encourage you to participate in one of our online course offerings to support instruction ahead. As well, for teachers with limited instructional time seeking a starting point, we offer a sample One Day Lesson Plan, as well as a sample Day Two Lesson Plan for a 2nd class period of instruction.
For more information, questions or concerns please contact us.


December 2018 marks the 25th anniversary of the release of Steven Spielberg’s Schindler’s List, which depicts the true story of Oskar Schindler—a man who saved the lives of more than 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust. It was Spielberg’s experience making this film that inspired him to collect and preserve the testimonies of over 54,000 Holocaust survivors and witnesses, a pursuit which ultimately led to the creation of what is now USC Shoah Foundation.

In honor of Universal Pictures’ rerelease of Schindler’s List, Echoes & Reflections has created a short, classroom-ready Companion Resource, that will help educators to provide important historical background and context to the film, as well as explore powerful true stories of rescue, survival, and resilience with their students.

Additionally, the following videos, recorded at Yad Vashem, feature Schindler survivors who speak of the impact Oskar Schindler had on their lives.

Eva Lavi was the youngest survivor from Schindler’s list. She was two years old when the war began.
Nahum Manor met and fell in love with his wife, Genia, in Schindler’s factory. Watch him read a letter at Schindler’s gravesite, expressing what he meant to them.

Visit the IWitness page commemorating the 25th anniversary of Schindler’s List for numerous additional resources to support teaching with this film.

Echoes & Reflections is excited to announce that our poster series: Inspiring the Human Story, is now available in PDF format, free of cost.

The posters feature the powerful words and experiences of Holocaust survivor and memoirist Elie Wiesel, Holocaust survivor Kurt Messerschmidt, and Anne Frank rescuer, Miep Gies. Each poster promotes meaningful conversation and reflection in the classroom, whether in person or in a virtual setting, and inspires students with powerful human stories of the Holocaust that can continue to guide agency and action as a result of studying this topic.

To support you in these efforts, we have also compiled several suggested classroom activities from teachers in our network that may be of use and interest.

Please fill out the form below to access and download your PDF posters.


USC Shoah Foundation’s first podcast, We Share The Same Sky, seeks to brings the past into present through a granddaughter’s decade-long journey to retrace her grandmother’s story of survival. We Share The Same Sky tells the two stories of these women—the grandmother, Hana, a refugee who remained one step ahead of the Nazis at every turn, and the granddaughter, Rachael, on a search to retrace her grandmother’s history.

A self-portrait of Rachael while she is living on a Danish farm that is owned by the granddaughter of Hana’s foster mother from World War II. Photo by Rachael Cerrotti, 2017

In order to enhance its classroom use, USC Shoah Foundation and Echoes & Reflections have created a Companion Educational Resource to support teachers as they introduce the podcast to their students. This document provides essential questions for students, as well as additional resources and content to help build context and framing for students’ understanding of the historical events addressed in the podcast.

Access to the podcast, as well as additional supporting materials—including IWitness student activities, academic standards alignment, and general strategies for teaching with podcasts—can all be found at the We Share The Same Sky page in IWitness.

Note: Due to the subject nature, the podcast is appropriate for older students, grades 10-12. As always, teachers should review the content fully in advance to determine its appropriateness for their student population.

After many years of research and digitizing the archive her grandmother left behind, Rachael set out to retrace her grandmother’s 17 years of statelessness. Her intention was to travel via the same modes of transportation and to live similar style lives as to what her grandmother did during the war and in the years after. That meant that when she got to Denmark, she moved to a farm. Rachael moved in with the granddaughter of her grandmother’s foster mother from World War II and traded her labor for room and board as Hana once did. This picture is from that first visit in the winter of 2015. Since this time, Rachael has spent many more months living on this farm. It is owned by Sine Christiansen and her family. Sine is the granddaughter of Jensine, one Hana’s foster mother from World War II. Photo by Rachael Cerrotti, 2015

A self portrait of Rachael overlooking the exact spot in Southern Sweden where her grandmother’s refugee boat came to shore in 1943. Photo by Rachael Cerrotti, 2016



Below is information to keep in mind when teaching the content in this unit. This material is intended to help teachers consider the complexities of teaching about the “Final Solution” and to deliver accurate and sensitive instruction.

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  • “The Final Solution of the Jewish Question” or “Final Solution” (written here in quotations to signify that it was a phrase created by the Nazis) was the Nazi policy to murder all of the Jews. It replaced earlier policies for forced relocation with a policy of systematic annihilation, and resulted in the murder of 6 million European Jews. While many other groups and millions of individuals suffered and died at the hands of the Nazis, only the Jewish people were targeted for complete annihilation. In the Nazis’ racial and antisemitic world view, the Jews were seen as their foremost enemy, and the “solution” of the so-called “Jewish Question” was paramount for them. The Nazis ultimately murdered two-thirds of European Jews.

  • Students’ information about the Nazi extermination camps is often in the form of dates, place names, and numbers. While it is important for students to realize that millions of Jews died at the hands of the Nazis, it is equally important that they see the victims of the Holocaust as individuals. They were mothers, fathers, sons, daughters, and grandparents; young and old; tradesmen, teachers, students, scientists, and doctors. They were artists, musicians, and poets. Reflecting on the Holocaust as a human story will make it more meaningful in students’ lives and will make them more likely to take the messages that can be learned from it to heart.

  • All six extermination camps were located in occupied Poland. There were several important reasons for this: Poland had the largest population of Jews before the war, and Poland was considered a location where the Nazis could do as they pleased, without any concern for the Poles, who were considered inferior. In addition, Poland was far from the eyes of the Western Allies, yet it had a well-developed railway system that made transporting Jews from all over Europe to Poland feasible. Even though these camps were on Polish soil, the Poles were not responsible for initiating the camps, nor for the policies carried out in them. These were Nazi German extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Poland.

  • In this unit, students learn about the intense struggle for survival of Jews imprisoned in the extermination camps. It is important that students realize, however, that the vast majority of Jews who arrived at the Nazi extermination camps were murdered. Only a few were chosen to work and of those, very few survived the harsh conditions, the beatings, the lack of food, extreme weather, and forced labor.

  • This unit contains difficult and complex subject matter. Teachers are encouraged to be sensitive to students’ reactions and to assure them that experiencing a range of emotions—anger, sadness, outrage, melancholy—are all natural responses to this kind of material, and that they should feel free to express and discuss those feelings with others. Caution should be exercised in using graphic images.

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The purpose of this unit is for students to learn about one of humanity’s darkest chapters—the systematic mass murder of the Jews that came to be known as the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” This includes learning about the Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing squads), the Nazi extermination camps, and the perpetrators and collaborators who took part in the murder. This unit also provides an opportunity for students to learn how Jews attempted to maintain their humanity in the camps despite the inhumane conditions and brutal treatment they faced.

Essential Questions
  • What were the circumstances and beliefs that made the Final Solution possible?
  • What social and political systems make genocide possible?
  • How does the dehumanization of a group of people in a society occur?
  • How do some individuals and communities find ways to resist and maintain their humanity in the face of violence and inhumanity?
  • Why is it important to focus on individual stories and experiences in accounts of mass atrocity?
Students will:
  • Define the Final Solution and explain how it was driven by Nazi ideology.

  • Summarize the purpose of the mobile killing squads and extermination camps in Nazi Europe, and the systems used to carry out mass extermination.

  • Interpret a variety of primary sources—visual history testimony, artifacts, artwork—used to document conditions of life and death in the camps.

  • Describe the conditions and the experiences of people imprisoned in extermination camps.

  • Identify ways in which some Jewish people imprisoned in the camps resisted spiritually and attempted to maintain their sense of humanity.

Academic and SEL Standards View More »
School Library Standards View More »


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Testimony Reflections View More »


150-180 minutes

LESSON 1: How the Final Solution Was Made Possible and Implemented


In this lesson, students use a variety of texts and primary sources to study the factors that made the Final Solution possible and how it was implemented. They consider the importance of individual stories and experiences as they study the mass killings perpetrated by the Nazis. Students reflect on an excerpt from Elie Wiesel’s Night as well as a number of visual history testimonies from Jewish survivors of the extermination camps.

Post the supporting question above for students as you begin this part of the lesson.
1The handout, How Should We Study the Final Solution? is distributed and the class together reads the first paragraph, defining the Final Solution. Individually or in pairs, students read the remainder of the handout and respond to the question about how the poem informs the way they should study the Final Solution. The class debriefs, discussing the importance of “the one” or seeing the individual amidst the masses of victims.

How Should We Study the Final Solution? View More »
2Copies of the handout, The One, are made available to students to use throughout this unit. The class reads the handout together and learns that they will use it to guide their thinking and recording as they meet various survivors and reflect on their individual stories and experiences of the Final Solution.

The One View More »
3Students are introduced to Elie Wiesel and his memoir, Night, using the background information in the NOTE. Individually or in pairs, students read the Excerpt from Night and record their thoughts using The One handout. The class discusses some of the following questions:  pin1

Excerpt from Night View More »

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  • What questions did you focus on while recording on The One handout? What parts of the excerpt most struck you? What questions do you have after reading the excerpt?

  • In addition to being forcibly torn away from the rest of their family, what else did Elie Wiesel and his father “leave behind”?

  • In this excerpt, how did the Nazis dehumanize Jews?

  • Why were Elie and his father told to lie about their ages?

  • Why do you think the older men did not want the younger men to revolt?

  • When Elie says that “the world would never tolerate such crimes,” his father answers that “The world is not interested in us.” Why do you think their perspectives are so different at this particular moment?

  • Choose a moment from the excerpt that you think represents a turning point in Elie’s life. How did this moment change his perception of the world, relationships, life, other people, or even himself?

  • How does the title chosen by Elie, Night, reflect the experiences of people who lived through the Holocaust?

Post the supporting question above for students as you begin this part of the lesson.
4Students learn they will further investigate the Final Solution to find out how events – such as those described by Elie Wiesel – were made possible and carried out. The following questions are posted to guide student work as they examine lesson sources:
  • How did Nazi racial ideology give rise to the Final Solution?

  • What conditions and beliefs allowed the Final Solution to occur?

  • What systems (structures, methods, plans) were used to carry out the Final Solution?

  • Who were the perpetrators of the Final Solution at all different levels of society?

5The handouts and resources below are made available to students. Small groups are each assigned one section of The “Final Solution” handout to examine closely. After reviewing the entire handout, groups focus in on their assigned section. They create a brief oral report summarizing it and answering the questions in step 4 above that are applicable. Students draw upon the map and timeline as needed to deepen their understanding.

The “Final Solution” View More »

Jewish Victims by Country View More »

  Major Nazi Camps in Europe, 1944

Einsatzgruppen: The Firing Squads of the Holocaust
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6Groups present their oral reports to the class as time allows, and discuss some of the following questions:
  • Why did the development of the Final Solution coincide with the invasion of the Soviet Union? How did this reflect basic principles of Nazi ideology?

  • Why did the Einsatzgruppen prove to be problematic for Nazi leaders, despite being an effective killing operation (responsible for the murder of more than 2 million Jews, a third of those killed in the Holocaust)?

  • Why were extermination camps formed? Why is the term “industrialized mass murder” used to describe the extermination camps?

  • Why were the extermination camps located in Poland? What role did Nazi ideology play in this decision?

  • As noted in the reading, “hundreds of thousands of people were involved, either directly or indirectly, in implementing the ‘Final Solution.’” What were the roles and motivations of people at different levels of society?

7Students watch testimony clips of Jewish survivors who witnessed mass killing by the Nazis: [L]William Good[/L] and [L]Abraham Bomba[/L] . As they watch the clips, students take notes on The One or Testimony Reflections handout. pin1

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8After viewing the testimony clips, students participate in a whole group discussion in response to some of the following questions:
  • How did you feel hearing about mass killings from a survivor? What did it add to your understanding of the Einsatzgruppen?

  • Why do you think William’s Jewish neighbors did not believe his story? What does this say about the mindset of ordinary people in 1941? How did this way of thinking benefit the Nazi regime?

  • Abraham describes Jewish prisoners with blue armbands (escorting Jews from the train to the undressing area) and red armbands (preparing Jews for the gas chamber). Why did the Germans purposefully force Jewish prisoners to take part in the extermination process?

  • What is the significance of the description that Abraham shares about the people being forced to undress?

  • In both Abraham’s and William’s stories, how did the Nazis use fear and terror to control their victims?

  • Abraham’s and William’s stories demonstrate how rare it was for Jews to survive Nazi violence – Abraham was one of only five out of 18,000 who were spared from the gas chamber that day. How does this statistic reflect the plans the Nazis had for the Jews?

  • What was your reaction to the kindness of the Polish family toward William Good after his escape? Were you surprised by their actions? Why?

9The photographs from the Auschwitz Album handout are projected or students access them online. Students are introduced to the collection of photos using the background information in the NOTE. The following quote is posted and discussed by the class: pin1
    “Critics warn against ‘a danger of viewing the past only through the eyes of the perpetrators’ because ‘we risk seeing the victims as the Nazis saw them’.”

    Auschwitz Album View More »

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    10In small groups, students analyze the four photographs from the Auschwitz Album using the See, Think, Wonder graphic organizer. As they observe, students remain aware that they are viewing “perpetrator photography” and consider the missing perspectives of the subjects depicted in the photographs.

    See, Think, Wonder View More »
    11Students watch a testimony clip of a Jewish survivor who was imprisoned at Auschwitz: [L]Ellis Lewin[/L]. As they watch the clip, students take notes on The One or Testimony Reflections handout. After viewing, the class discusses the testimony and their thoughts about the Auschwitz Album using some of the following questions:

    What was Auschwitz-Birkenau?
    here »
    • What did you see, hear, or feel as you looked at the photographs in the Auschwitz Album?

    • What did you not see? In what ways were the experiences of the subjects missing from view?

    • What information or feeling do you get from Ellis Lewin’s testimony that is different from the photo album? How does this relate to the quote about “viewing the past only through the eyes of the perpetrators”?

    • How does Ellis describe the sights, sounds, and the pace of activity at Auschwitz? How is it similar to Abraham Bomba’s description of arriving at Treblinka? What was the Nazi’s purpose in creating such an atmosphere?

    • How did the Nazis break apart Ellis’s family? How did his father try to prevent the two of them from separating? How do you think this conflicted with his instincts or desires as a father?

    • How is Elie Wiesel’s account of arriving at Auschwitz similar to Ellis’s description? What is the value of having both of these accounts available?

    • Taken together, what story do the survivor testimonies tell? What is the contrast between them and the story transmitted by the perpetrators through the Auschwitz Album?

    12As a summative task, students choose one of the survivors they encountered in this lesson and note three things: (a) an insight about the systems that made the Final Solution possible; (b) an observation about the dehumanizing conditions or experiences faced by the individual; and (c) a question they would pose to the individual if they could. Students draw on examples from lesson sources to support their observations.


    120 Minutes

    LESSON 2: Spiritual Resistance: Attempting to Preserve Humanity in the Face of Inhumanity


    In this lesson, students consider how dehumanization made the Final Solution possible. They examine texts and testimony that delve into the theme of dehumanization from the perspectives of both a perpetrator and Jewish survivors. Students also interpret a variety of primary sources – including poetry and art – that deepen their understanding of spiritual resistance and how some people attempted to cope with and respond to Nazi atrocities.

    Post the supporting question above for students as you begin this part of the lesson.
    1Students brainstorm and note on the board a list of the things that make them feel human (e.g., satisfying basic needs such as nutrition, health, and shelter; emotions; relationships; self-expression; autonomy; social and cultural belonging; learning; laughing; leisure).
    2Based on their list, the class comes up with a definition for dehumanize (e.g., to deprive someone of human qualities; to take away their dignity or make them feel less than human). The definition is posted and students are prompted to consider the following questions as they engage with the materials in this lesson:
    • How were Jewish people dehumanized as the Final Solution was carried out?
    • How did some Jewish people find ways to assert their humanity in the face of degradation and brutality?
    3In pairs, students read the Interview with Franz Stangl and Excerpt from Survival in Auschwitz. They think about how dehumanization made the Final Solution possible from the perspectives of both a perpetrator and a target of Nazi hate. Pairs select one phrase from each reading that most reflects this dehumanization for them. The class engages in a read-around, in which students choose one phrase to read aloud.

    Interview with Franz Stangl  View More »
    Excerpt from Survival in Auschwitz View More »
    4Students watch a testimony clip of a Jewish survivor who discusses her daily life at Auschwitz: [L]Itka Zygmuntowicz[/L]. As they watch the clip, students reflect on the theme of dehumanization and take notes on The One or Testimony Reflections handout.
    5After reading the texts and viewing the testimony clip, students participate in a whole group discussion in response to some of the following questions:
    • According to Primo Levi and Itka Zygmuntowicz, how were the prisoners at Auschwitz stripped of their humanity? What are some examples of the physical and emotional humiliation they endured on a daily basis?

    • What does Levi mean by “the double sense of the term ‘extermination camp’”? What was lost in these camps beyond human life?

    • What was the effect, for Primo and Itka, of losing their possessions, names, and aspects of their identities?

    • Based on the testimony and Franz Stangl interview, what enabled the guards and officials at the camps to see Jewish people as less than human?

    • What is the connection between dehumanization and the ability to commit genocide?

    • What is your reaction to the claim by Stangl and other Nazis that they were working for the system and did not have a choice?

    • What was the power in Itka’s thought, “Our God is here, but where is yours?”

    Post the supporting question above for students as you begin this part of the lesson.
    6In small groups, students interpret primary sources that reflect how some people coped with and responded to Nazi concentration and extermination camps. Stations are set up with the sources below. Students analyze at least two of these sources by discussing the accompanying prompts with their groups, and by continuing to record their reflections on The One handout.
    • Poetry: Poems from a Camp Survivor  pin1
    • Visual Art: Appell, 1944
    • Artifacts: Life in the Shadow of Death

    Poems from a Camp Survivor View More »
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    Appell, 1944 View More »
    Life in the Shadow of Death View More »
    7The class debriefs the station exercise using the questions below.

    Found Poetry: A Language Arts Lesson
    here »
    • What feelings emerge from these works and images? What stories do they tell?

    • What is communicated through art and artifacts that cannot be communicated in a textbook?

    • What is spiritual resistance? How do these pieces and artifacts reflect the humanity of Holocaust victims and the resilience of the human spirit?

    8Students continue to explore the idea of spiritual resistance through the following sources and take notes on The One or Testimony Reflections handout as they view/read:
    • Testimony of [L]Itka Zygmuntowicz[/L], who wrote poetry to cope with her feelings as a prisoner at Auschwitz.
    • Excerpt from Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankl, a survivor of Theresienstadt, Auschwitz, and Dachau.

    Excerpt from Man’s Search for Meaning View More »
    9The class debriefs using some of the following questions:
    • How does Itka Zygmuntowicz distinguish between her physical and spiritual existence while imprisoned?

    • What did writing the poem help Itka to discover? How did it sustain her?

    • What does Viktor Frankl mean when he says his ”soul found its way…to another world”? What helped him to transcend life in the camps?

    • How do you interpret Frankl’s statement that there was no need for him to know if his wife was still alive? What figurative as opposed to literal meaning might this have?

    • After listening to Itka’s testimony and reading the selection from Viktor Frankl, what do you think made it possible for people to cope with life in a world that dehumanized them and denied their existence?

    • Why is it important for those studying the Holocaust to understand how Jews struggled for life and dignity in a world of dehumanization?

    10As a summative task, students return to Elie Wiesel and react to the following quote:
      …We never try to tell the tale to make people weep…If we decided to tell the tale, it is because we wanted the world to be a better world…and learn, and remember. What is our role? We must become the messengers’ messengers.
        Students consider their role as the “messengers’ messenger” and articulate two or three messages that they would want to carry forward based on their study of the “Final Solution.” They indicate specific learnings from unit sources that informed or inspired each message.

        The ideas below are offered as ways to extend the lessons in this unit and make connections to related historical events, current issues, and students’ own experiences. These topics can be integrated directly into Echoes & Reflections lessons, used as stand-alone teaching ideas, or investigated by students engaged in project-based learning.

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        1Visit IWitness ( for testimonies, resources, and activities to learn more about life in the camps, Babi Yar, the Einsatzgruppen, and other topics associated with the “Final Solution.”
        2In her testimony, Itka Zygmuntowicz recites the poem she wrote in Auschwitz—a poem about freedom. Many children (and adults) used art as a way to spiritually survive the experience of the ghettos, and in some instances, the extermination camps. Write about the importance of the arts in your life and how music, painting, writing poetry, or something similar has helped you during a particularly difficult time.
        3Throughout this unit, you have considered an important question regarding the Holocaust: How was the Holocaust humanly possible? Respond to this question in light of the material you have studied.
        4Review the Pyramid of Hate handout and consider whether “genocide” should be added to the top of the pyramid or if there are other changes to the graphic that are warranted based on your study of the Final Solution. Prepare a revised “pyramid of hate” or a completely different graphic representation that you feel more accurately depicts the escalation of hate. The revised graphic should be accompanied by a short explanatory text that explains the reasoning behind adding genocide to the top of the pyramid, changing the graphic entirely, or keeping it as is.

        Pyramid of Hate View More »
        5A diverse array of art was created during the Holocaust. Some pieces were sanctioned by camp or ghetto authorities for propaganda purposes or for the personal satisfaction of Nazi officials. Other art was created secretly and at great risk to the artists’ lives. Thousands of these clandestine pieces were discovered in ghettos and camps after liberation. Artists who survived the Holocaust also created works following liberation to document their experiences and interpretations of the Holocaust. Research and identify one piece of art created during or after the Holocaust that is meaningful to you. Create a multimedia presentation in which you display and interpret the artwork, provide background about the artist and circumstances under which the piece was created, and share why you chose it. Possible artists to research include Felix Nussbaum, Fernand Van Horen, Yehuda Bacon, Esther Lurie, Alexander Bogen, Hirsch Szylis, Charlotte Salomon, Samuel Bak, Bedrich Fritta, and Petr Ginz. Refer to the Yad Vashem website for additional information (
        6Research one of the topics below and prepare a presentation, in a format of your choice, on what you learned. Include information about at least three of the six extermination camps — Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka. Consult primary source materials as part of your research. Useful sites include Yad Vashem (, IWitness (, and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum website (
        • Topic #1: Resistance in the camps
        • Topic #2: Culture, religion, and education in the camps
        • Topic #3: Community and teamwork in the camps
        • Topic #4: Children in the camps
        • Topic #5: Survival in the camps
        • Topic #6: Information about a specific extermination camp
        7There are many films and novels that are set during the Holocaust, some based on true stories with fictional elements and others entirely fictional. Many of these works contribute positively to Holocaust education by raising awareness, evoking emotion, and inspiring reflection. Some, however – despite being labeled as fiction – present historical inaccuracies that can lead to a flawed understanding of the Holocaust. With this problem in mind, analyze a Holocaust novel or film that you’ve read/viewed before or choose a new one from the list below. Draft questions that help you to evaluate the accuracy of the story, for example the chronology or timeline of events, the language used to describe events, the way people are portrayed, the setting or location of events, etc. Note potential inaccuracies in the story and research them. Then write a brief report summarizing your findings and discussing the benefits and challenges of using fiction to learn about the Holocaust.
        • Possible Books:
        • The Book Thief by Markus Zusak
        • Devil’s Arithmetic by Jane Yolen
        • Friedrich by Hans Peter Richter
        • Milkweed by Jerry Spinelli
        • Number the Stars by Lois Lowry
        • Possible Films:
        • Anne Frank: The Whole Story
        • The Book Thief
        • Island On Bird Street
        • Life Is Beautiful
        • The Pianist
        • Schindler’s List
        • The Zookeeper’s Wife
        KEY WORDS
        Babi Yar  
        concentration camp
        European Jewry
        extermination camp
        “Final Solution of the Jewish Question”
        Nazi ideology
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        RIGHT COL